Developed in Kazakhstan between 1931 and 1976 at the Pytimarsk
and Furman studs, the Kushum breed was developed from a trotter,
Don, Kasakh, Budyonny and Thoroughbred breeding. The Kushum
has a high adaptability to conditions, and is suitable for
milk and meat production. The horses are built similar to
a saddle-harness horse, with a large head and pronounced withers.
They are versatile and perform well in high endurance tests.
In taboon management, Kushum horses show sound health and
fertility with about 83 foals per 100 mares surviving to at
least one year of age.
There are three types within the Kushum breed, a basic, a
heavily muscled and a saddler.
Developed in collective-farm and state-farm studs, the Kustanai
is concentrated at Kustanai and Maikulski studs. The last
date the breed was officially recognized was in 1890. The
new breed was developed when breeders crossed the native Kazakh
with Stralets, Astrakhan, Don and halfbred Thoroughbred stallions.
Breeding was unsuccessful at first, until improved breeding
was formed at Kustanai stud.
In the 1920's, a new breed began to be developed at Kustanai
stud. There was two management systems, including taboon keeping
with year round grazy and keeping sheds for bad weather- free
mating and hay feeding, as well as keeping them in stables
and pastures, winter grazing throughout good weather and feeding
with abundant hay. This second group also had concentrate
feeding, hand mating and the foals were weaned at about 7
months of age.
The purpose of the breeding was to develop two types at the
same time, a steppe and saddle type. Horses with high proportions
of Thoroughbred blood were for saddle horses, while the other
crossbreds were used in higher concentration for the steppe
Modern day Kustanai horses combine saddler characteristics
and the pronounced basic steppe lineage. They have a medium
sized head, well muscled, medium height withers, and strong,
healthy fitness levels despite continental climate.
The Kustanai horses display record breaking speeds.
In Latvia, from the start of the 20th century through to
1952, the Latvian breed was developed by the crossing of native
horses with European harness and harness saddle horses. Some
of the horses influencing the Latvian breed included Holstein,
Hanoverian and Oldenburg.
Two types of Latvian horses has been developed, equestrian
sport horses and harness horses. Before the 1960's, the harness
type of Latvian horse was emphasized, but as equestrian sports
gained popularity in Latvia, the sport type was increased
by using more Thoroughbred and Hanoverian bloodlines.
Latvian horses have provided strong results for performance
testing in both saddle and harness, and even under competition.
The Lipizzan's history dates back to the beginning of the
1560's. Arab blood was crossed with local, athletic Spanish
type horses. Spanish horses were considered to have exceptional
sturdiness, intelligence and beauty, and so they were sought
after for classical riding.
Most Lipizzan horses are the color grey. The Lipizzan breed
is sturdy, intelligent and have docile dispositions. Some
Lipizzan's turn white as they age- and only in rare cases
does the breed retain the dark color of their births. The
horses are not tall, and average 14-15 hands. It is obvious
that Lipizzan horses are influenced by Arabian blood, particularly
in the appearance of the Lipizzan's heads.
Classical horsemanship is taught at various Spanish Riding
Schools, using Lipizzan horses.
LITHUANIAN HEAVY DRAFT
When breeders crossed the Swedish Ardennes with the Zhumudka
horses, the Lithuanian Heavy Draft horse was the result.
The Lithuanian Heavy Draft horse has a solid build, great
body proportions and large size. They have a long, often dipped
back, and solid limbs. Most are chestnut and bay colored and
have weight of about 850 kg. Lithuanian Heavy Draft horses
have high fertility and good longevity.
The breed is known for adaptability to harsh conditions and
is used to improve the meat and milk yields in Altai horses.
A new breed will be developed from crossbreeding Lithuanian
Heavy Draft horses with Altai horses.
About the Author
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