The following simple rules will be found useful to all parties
about to buy a horse:
I. Never take the seller's word; if dishonest he will
be sure to cheat you, if disposed to be fair, he may have
been the dupe of another, and will deceive you through representations
which cannot be relied upon.
II. If you trust the horse's mouth for his age, observe
well the rules given below, for that purpose.
III. Never buy a horse while in motion; watch him
while he stands at rest, and you will discover his weak points.
If sound he will stand squarely on his limbs without moving
any of them, the feet planted flat upon the ground, with legs
plump and naturally poised. If one foot is thrown forward
with the toe pointing to the ground and the heel raised; or
if the foot is lifted from the ground and the weight taken
from it, disease of the navicular bone may be suspected, or
at least, tenderness, which is precursor of disease. If the
foot is thrown out, the toe raised and the heel brought down,
the horse has suffered from laminitis, founder or fever in
the feet, or the back sinews have been sprained, and he is
of little future value. When the feet are all drawn together
beneath the horse, if there has been no disease there is a
misplacement of the limbs, at least, and a weak disposition
of the muscles. If the horse stands with his feet spread out,
or straddles with the hind legs, there is weakness of the
loins, and the kidneys are disordered.
IV. Never buy a horse with a bluish or milkish cast
in the eyes. They Indicate a constitutional tendency to ophthalmia
(soreness or weak eyes) moon blindness, etc.
V. Never have anything to do with a horse who keeps
his ears thrown back. It is an invariable indication of bad
VI. If a horse's hind legs are scarred the fact denotes
that he is a kicker.
VII. If the knees are blemished the horse is apt to
VIII. When the skin is rough and harsh, and does not
move easily and smoothly to the touch, the horse is a heavy
eater, and his digestion is bad.
IX. Avoid a horse whose respiratory organs are at
all impaired, If the ear is placed at the side of the heart,
and a whizzing sound is heard, it is an indication of trouble.
Let him go.
How to Judge the Age of a Horse
The age of a horse, up to a certain period, is generally
determined by his teeth. There are no two opinions alike on
this point. But as almost every writer on this subject has
some pet theory of his own, there are probably no two writers
whose opinions agree as to the exact manner of arriving at
a horse's age after it has attained the age of 5 years. For
the edification of our readers, we give from " Kendall's Treatise
on the Horse," the following concise rules, which will be
found generally correct.
I. Eight to fourteen days after birth the first middle
nippers of the set of milk teeth are cut; four to six weeks
afterward, the pair next to them, and finally, after six or
eight months, the last. All these milk teeth have a well defined
body, neck and shoulder fang, and on their front surface grooves—or
furrows, which disappear from the middle nippers at the end
of one year; from the next pair in two years, and from the
incisive teeth (cutters) in three years.
II. At the age of two the nippers become loose and
fallout, in their places appear two permanent teeth, with
deep, black cavities, and full, sharp edges. At the age of
three the next pair fall out. At four years old the corner
teeth fall out. At five years old the horse has his permanent
set of teeth.
III. The teeth grow in length as the horse advances
in years, but at the same time his teeth are worn away by
use, about one twelfth of an inch every year, so that the
black cavities of the nippers below disappear in the sixth
year; those of the next pair in the seventh year, and those
of the corner teeth in the eight year; also the outer corner
teeth of the upper and lower jaws just meet at eight years
of age. At nine years old cups leave the two center nippers
above, and each of the two upper corner teeth have a little
sharp protrusion at the extreme outer corner. At the age of
ten the cups disappear from the adjoining teeth; at the age
of eleven the cups disappear from the corner teeth above,
and are only indicated by brownish spots.
IV. The oval form becomes broader, and changes, from
the twelfth to the sixteenth year, more, and more into a triangular
form, and teeth lose, finally, with the 20th year, all regularity.
There is nothing remaining in the teeth that can afterward
clearly show the age of the horse or justify the most experienced
examiner in giving a positive opinion.
V. The tushes or canine teeth, conical in shape, with
a sharp point and curved, are cut between the third and fourth
year, their points become more and more rounded, until the
ninth year, and after that more and more dull in the course
of years, and lose, finally, all regular shape, Mares have
frequently 4 no tusks, or only faintly indicated.
About The Author
Bruce Tusky has spent his entire life around horses. For
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